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DP socket. This allows us to process and discard ACK and ABORT packets much more quickly (they're no longer stashed on a queue for a background thread to process). (2) We avoid calling skb_clone(), pskb_pull() and pskb_trim(). We instead keep track of the offset and length of the content of each packet in the sk_buff metadata. This means we don't do any allocation in the receive path. (3) Jumbo DATA packet parsing is now done in data_ready context. Rather than cloning the packet once for each subpacket and pulling/trimming it, we file the packet multiple times with an annotation for each indicating which subpacket is there. From that we can directly calculate the offset and length. (4) A call's receive queue can be accessed without taking locks (memory barriers do have to be used, though). (5) Incoming calls are set up from preallocated resources and immediately made live. They can than have packets queued upon them and ACKs generated. If insufficient resources exist, DATA packet #1 is given a BUSY reply and other DATA packets are discarded). (6) sk_buffs no longer take a ref on their parent call. To make this work, the following changes are made: (1) Each call's receive buffer is now a circular buffer of sk_buff pointers (rxtx_buffer) rather than a number of sk_buff_heads spread between the call and the socket. This permits each sk_buff to be in the buffer multiple times. The receive buffer is reused for the transmit buffer. (2) A circular buffer of annotations (rxtx_annotations) is kept parallel to the data buffer. Transmission phase annotations indicate whether a buffered packet has been ACK'd or not and whether it needs retransmission. Receive phase annotations indicate whether a slot holds a whole packet or a jumbo subpacket and, if the latter, which subpacket. They also note whether the packet has been decrypted in place. (3) DATA packet window tracking is much simplified. Each phase has just two numbers representing the window (rx_hard_ack/rx_top and tx_hard_ack/tx_top). The hard_ack number is the sequence number before base of the window, representing the last packet the other side says it has consumed. hard_ack starts from 0 and the first packet is sequence number 1. The top number is the sequence number of the highest-numbered packet residing in the buffer. Packets between hard_ack+1 and top are soft-ACK'd to indicate they've been received, but not yet consumed. Four macros, before(), before_eq(), after() and after_eq() are added to compare sequence numbers within the window. This allows for the top of the window to wrap when the hard-ack sequence number gets close to the limit. Two flags, RXRPC_CALL_RX_LAST and RXRPC_CALL_TX_LAST, are added also to indicate when rx_top and tx_top point at the packets with the LAST_PACKET bit set, indicating the end of the phase. (4) Calls are queued on the socket 'receive queue' rather than packets. This means that we don't need have to invent dummy packets to queue to indicate abnormal/terminal states and we don't have to keep metadata packets (such as ABORTs) around (5) The offset and length of a (sub)packet's content are now passed to the verify_packet security op. This is currently expected to decrypt the packet in place and validate it. However, there's now nowhere to store the revised offset and length of the actual data within the decrypted blob (there may be a header and padding to skip) because an sk_buff may represent multiple packets, so a locate_data security op is added to retrieve these details from the sk_buff content when needed. (6) recvmsg() now has to handle jumbo subpackets, where each subpacket is individually secured and needs to be individually decrypted. The code to do this is broken out into rxrpc_recvmsg_data() and shared with the kernel API. It now iterates over the call's receive buffer rather than walking the socket receive queue. Additional changes: (1) The timers are condensed to a single timer that is set for the soonest of three timeouts (delayed ACK generation, DATA retransmission and call lifespan). (2) Transmission of ACK and ABORT packets is effected immediately from process-context socket ops/kernel API calls that cause them instead of them being punted off to a background work item. The data_ready handler still has to defer to the background, though. (3) A shutdown op is added to the AF_RXRPC socket so that the AFS filesystem can shut down the socket and flush its own work items before closing the socket to deal with any in-progress service calls. Future additional changes that will need to be considered: (1) Make sure that a call doesn't hog the front of the queue by receiving data from the network as fast as userspace is consuming it to the exclusion of other calls. (2) Transmit delayed ACKs from within recvmsg() when we've consumed sufficiently more packets to avoid the background work item needing to run. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-09-07rxrpc: Calls shouldn't hold socket refsDavid Howells1-3/+0 rxrpc calls shouldn't hold refs on the sock struct. This was done so that the socket wouldn't go away whilst the call was in progress, such that the call could reach the socket's queues. However, we can mark the socket as requiring an RCU release and rely on the RCU read lock. To make this work, we do: (1) rxrpc_release_call() removes the call's call user ID. This is now only called from socket operations and not from the call processor: rxrpc_accept_call() / rxrpc_kernel_accept_call() rxrpc_reject_call() / rxrpc_kernel_reject_call() rxrpc_kernel_end_call() rxrpc_release_calls_on_socket() rxrpc_recvmsg() Though it is also called in the cleanup path of rxrpc_accept_incoming_call() before we assign a user ID. (2) Pass the socket pointer into rxrpc_release_call() rather than getting it from the call so that we can get rid of uninitialised calls. (3) Fix call processor queueing to pass a ref to the work queue and to release that ref at the end of the processor function (or to pass it back to the work queue if we have to requeue). (4) Skip out of the call processor function asap if the call is complete and don't requeue it if the call is complete. (5) Clean up the call immediately that the refcount reaches 0 rather than trying to defer it. Actual deallocation is deferred to RCU, however. (6) Don't hold socket refs for allocated calls. (7) Use the RCU read lock when queueing a message on a socket and treat the call's socket pointer according to RCU rules and check it for NULL. We also need to use the RCU read lock when viewing a call through procfs. (8) Transmit the final ACK/ABORT to a client call in rxrpc_release_call() if this hasn't been done yet so that we can then disconnect the call. Once the call is disconnected, it won't have any access to the connection struct and the UDP socket for the call work processor to be able to send the ACK. Terminal retransmission will be handled by the connection processor. (9) Release all calls immediately on the closing of a socket rather than trying to defer this. Incomplete calls will be aborted. The call refcount model is much simplified. Refs are held on the call by: (1) A socket's user ID tree. (2) A socket's incoming call secureq and acceptq. (3) A kernel service that has a call in progress. (4) A queued call work processor. We have to take care to put any call that we failed to queue. (5) sk_buffs on a socket's receive queue. A future patch will get rid of this. Whilst we're at it, we can do: (1) Get rid of the RXRPC_CALL_EV_RELEASE event. Release is now done entirely from the socket routines and never from the call's processor. (2) Get rid of the RXRPC_CALL_DEAD state. Calls now end in the RXRPC_CALL_COMPLETE state. (3) Get rid of the rxrpc_call::destroyer work item. Calls are now torn down when their refcount reaches 0 and then handed over to RCU for final cleanup. (4) Get rid of the rxrpc_call::deadspan timer. Calls are cleaned up immediately they're finished with and don't hang around. Post-completion retransmission is handled by the connection processor once the call is disconnected. (5) Get rid of the dead call expiry setting as there's no longer a timer to set. (6) rxrpc_destroy_all_calls() can just check that the call list is empty. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-09-07rxrpc: Improve the call tracking tracepointDavid Howells1-1/+1 Improve the call tracking tracepoint by showing more differentiation between some of the put and get events, including: (1) Getting and putting refs for the socket call user ID tree. (2) Getting and putting refs for queueing and failing to queue the call processor work item. Note that these aren't necessarily used in this patch, but will be taken advantage of in future patches. An enum is added for the event subtype numbers rather than coding them directly as decimal numbers and a table of 3-letter strings is provided rather than a sequence of ?: operators. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-09-07rxrpc: Delete unused rxrpc_kernel_free_skb()David Howells1-13/+0 Delete rxrpc_kernel_free_skb() as it's unused. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-09-01rxrpc: Don't expose skbs to in-kernel users [ver #2]David Howells1-1/+0 Don't expose skbs to in-kernel users, such as the AFS filesystem, but instead provide a notification hook the indicates that a call needs attention and another that indicates that there's a new call to be collected. This makes the following possibilities more achievable: (1) Call refcounting can be made simpler if skbs don't hold refs to calls. (2) skbs referring to non-data events will be able to be freed much sooner rather than being queued for AFS to pick up as rxrpc_kernel_recv_data will be able to consult the call state. (3) We can shortcut the receive phase when a call is remotely aborted because we don't have to go through all the packets to get to the one cancelling the operation. (4) It makes it easier to do encryption/decryption directly between AFS's buffers and sk_buffs. (5) Encryption/decryption can more easily be done in the AFS's thread contexts - usually that of the userspace process that issued a syscall - rather than in one of rxrpc's background threads on a workqueue. (6) AFS will be able to wait synchronously on a call inside AF_RXRPC. To make this work, the following interface function has been added: int rxrpc_kernel_recv_data( struct socket *sock, struct rxrpc_call *call, void *buffer, size_t bufsize, size_t *_offset, bool want_more, u32 *_abort_code); This is the recvmsg equivalent. It allows the caller to find out about the state of a specific call and to transfer received data into a buffer piecemeal. afs_extract_data() and rxrpc_kernel_recv_data() now do all the extraction logic between them. They don't wait synchronously yet because the socket lock needs to be dealt with. Five interface functions have been removed: rxrpc_kernel_is_data_last() rxrpc_kernel_get_abort_code() rxrpc_kernel_get_error_number() rxrpc_kernel_free_skb() rxrpc_kernel_data_consumed() As a temporary hack, sk_buffs going to an in-kernel call are queued on the rxrpc_call struct (->knlrecv_queue) rather than being handed over to the in-kernel user. To process the queue internally, a temporary function, temp_deliver_data() has been added. This will be replaced with common code between the rxrpc_recvmsg() path and the kernel_rxrpc_recv_data() path in a future patch. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <> 2016-08-30rxrpc: Trace rxrpc_call usageDavid Howells1-3/+1 Add a trace event for debuging rxrpc_call struct usage. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-08-23rxrpc: Calculate serial skew on packet receptionDavid Howells1-5/+5 Calculate the serial number skew in the data_ready handler when a packet has been received and a connection looked up. The skew is cached in the sk_buff's priority field. The connection highest received serial number is updated at this time also. This can be done without locks or atomic instructions because, at this point, the code is serialised by the socket. This generates more accurate skew data because if the packet is offloaded to a work queue before this is determined, more packets may come in, bumping the highest serial number and thereby increasing the apparent skew. This also removes some unnecessary atomic ops. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-08-23rxrpc: Use a tracepoint for skb accounting debuggingDavid Howells1-0/+62 Use a tracepoint to log various skb accounting points to help in debugging refcounting errors. Signed-off-by: David Howells <> 2016-08-06rxrpc: Fix races between skb free, ACK generation and replyingDavid Howells1-7/+34 Inside the kafs filesystem it is possible to occasionally have a call processed and terminated before we've had a chance to check whether we need to clean up the rx queue for that call because afs_send_simple_reply() ends the call when it is done, but this is done in a workqueue item that might happen to run to completion before afs_deliver_to_call() completes. Further, it is possible for rxrpc_kernel_send_data() to be called to send a reply before the last request-phase data skb is released. The rxrpc skb destructor is where the ACK processing is done and the call state is advanced upon release of the last skb. ACK generation is also deferred to a work item because it's possible that the skb destructor is not called in a context where kernel_sendmsg() can be invoked. To this end, the following changes are made: (1) kernel_rxrpc_data_consumed() is added. This should be called whenever an skb is emptied so as to crank the ACK and call states. This does not release the skb, however. kernel_rxrpc_free_skb() must now be called to achieve that. These together replace rxrpc_kernel_data_delivered(). (2) kernel_rxrpc_data_consumed() is wrapped by afs_data_consumed(). This makes afs_deliver_to_call() easier to work as the skb can simply be discarded unconditionally here without trying to work out what the return value of the ->deliver() function means. The ->deliver() functions can, via afs_data_complete(), afs_transfer_reply() and afs_extract_data() mark that an skb has been consumed (thereby cranking the state) without the need to conditionally free the skb to make sure the state is correct on an incoming call for when the call processor tries to send the reply. (3) rxrpc_recvmsg() now has to call kernel_rxrpc_data_consumed() when it has finished with a packet and MSG_PEEK isn't set. (4) rxrpc_packet_destructor() no longer calls rxrpc_hard_ACK_data(). Because of this, we no longer need to clear the destructor and put the call before we free the skb in cases where we don't want the ACK/call state to be cranked. (5) The ->deliver() call-type callbacks are made to return -EAGAIN rather than 0 if they expect more data (afs_extract_data() returns -EAGAIN to the delivery function already), and the caller is now responsible for producing an abort if that was the last packet. (6) There are many bits of unmarshalling code where: ret = afs_extract_data(call, skb, last, ...); switch (ret) { case 0: break; case -EAGAIN: return 0; default: return ret; } is to be found. As -EAGAIN can now be passed back to the caller, we now just return if ret < 0: ret = afs_extract_data(call, skb, last, ...); if (ret < 0) return ret; (7) Checks for trailing data and empty final data packets has been consolidated as afs_data_complete(). So: if (skb->len > 0) return -EBADMSG; if (!last) return 0; becomes: ret = afs_data_complete(call, skb, last); if (ret < 0) return ret; (8) afs_transfer_reply() now checks the amount of data it has against the amount of data desired and the amount of data in the skb and returns an error to induce an abort if we don't get exactly what we want. Without these changes, the following oops can occasionally be observed, particularly if some printks are inserted into the delivery path: general protection fault: 0000 [#1] SMP Modules linked in: kafs(E) af_rxrpc(E) [last unloaded: af_rxrpc] CPU: 0 PID: 1305 Comm: kworker/u8:3 Tainted: G E 4.7.0-fsdevel+ #1303 Hardware name: ASUS All Series/H97-PLUS, BIOS 2306 10/09/2014 Workqueue: kafsd afs_async_workfn [kafs] task: ffff88040be041c0 ti: ffff88040c070000 task.ti: ffff88040c070000 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8108fd3c>] [<ffffffff8108fd3c>] __lock_acquire+0xcf/0x15a1 RSP: 0018:ffff88040c073bc0 EFLAGS: 00010002 RAX: 6b6b6b6b6b6b6b6b RBX: 0000000000000000 RCX: ffff88040d29a710 RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: 0000000000000000 RDI: ffff88040d29a710 RBP: ffff88040c073c70 R08: 0000000000000001 R09: 0000000000000001 R10: 0000000000000001 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: 0000000000000000 R13: 0000000000000000 R14: ffff88040be041c0 R15: ffffffff814c928f FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff88041fa00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033 CR2: 00007fa4595f4750 CR3: 0000000001c14000 CR4: 00000000001406f0 Stack: 0000000000000006 000000000be04930 0000000000000000 ffff880400000000 ffff880400000000 ffffffff8108f847 ffff88040be041c0 ffffffff81050446 ffff8803fc08a920 ffff8803fc08a958 ffff88040be041c0 ffff88040c073c38 Call Trace: [<ffffffff8108f847>] ? mark_held_locks+0x5e/0x74 [<ffffffff81050446>] ? __local_bh_enable_ip+0x9b/0xa1 [<ffffffff8108f9ca>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x16d/0x189 [<ffffffff810915f4>] lock_acquire+0x122/0x1b6 [<ffffffff810915f4>] ? lock_acquire+0x122/0x1b6 [<ffffffff814c928f>] ? skb_dequeue+0x18/0x61 [<ffffffff81609dbf>] _raw_spin_lock_irqsave+0x35/0x49 [<ffffffff814c928f>] ? skb_dequeue+0x18/0x61 [<ffffffff814c928f>] skb_dequeue+0x18/0x61 [<ffffffffa009aa92>] afs_deliver_to_call+0x344/0x39d [kafs] [<ffffffffa009ab37>] afs_process_async_call+0x4c/0xd5 [kafs] [<ffffffffa0099e9c>] afs_async_workfn+0xe/0x10 [kafs] [<ffffffff81063a3a>] process_one_work+0x29d/0x57c [<ffffffff81064ac2>] worker_thread+0x24a/0x385 [<ffffffff81064878>] ? rescuer_thread+0x2d0/0x2d0 [<ffffffff810696f5>] kthread+0xf3/0xfb [<ffffffff8160a6ff>] ret_from_fork+0x1f/0x40 [<ffffffff81069602>] ? kthread_create_on_node+0x1cf/0x1cf Signed-off-by: David Howells <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <> 2016-06-13rxrpc: Rename files matching ar-*.c to git rid of the "ar-" prefixDavid Howells1-0/+138 Rename files matching net/rxrpc/ar-*.c to get rid of the "ar-" prefix. This will aid splitting those files by making easier to come up with new names. Note that the not all files are simply renamed from ar-X.c to X.c. The following exceptions are made: (*) ar-call.c -> call_object.c ar-ack.c -> call_event.c call_object.c is going to contain the core of the call object handling. Call event handling is all going to be in call_event.c. (*) ar-accept.c -> call_accept.c Incoming call handling is going to be here. (*) ar-connection.c -> conn_object.c ar-connevent.c -> conn_event.c The former file is going to have the basic connection object handling, but there will likely be some differentiation between client connections and service connections in additional files later. The latter file will have all the connection-level event handling. (*) ar-local.c -> local_object.c This will have the local endpoint object handling code. The local endpoint event handling code will later be split out into local_event.c. (*) ar-peer.c -> peer_object.c This will have the peer endpoint object handling code. Peer event handling code will be placed in peer_event.c (for the moment, there is none). (*) ar-error.c -> peer_event.c This will become the peer event handling code, though for the moment it's actually driven from the local endpoint's perspective. Note that I haven't renamed ar-transport.c to transport_object.c as the intention is to delete it when the rxrpc_transport struct is excised. The only file that actually has its contents changed is net/rxrpc/Makefile. net/rxrpc/ar-internal.h will need its section marker comments updating, but I'll do that in a separate patch to make it easier for git to follow the history across the rename. I may also want to rename ar-internal.h at some point - but that would mean updating all the #includes and I'd rather do that in a separate step. Signed-off-by: David Howells <